美國六月份就業數據:新增480萬個就業崗位,再破月記錄!

A Record 4.8 Million Jobs Created in June, Beating Record Set Last Month

六月份破紀錄創造480萬個就業崗位,打破上個月記錄

Our Nation’s economy has broken another record as 4.8 million jobs were added in June, bringing the economic comeback to 7.5 million jobs added over the past two months, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ June Employment Situation report.

美國勞工統計局(Bureau of Labor Statistics) 6月份就業形勢報告顯示,6月份美國新增480萬個就業崗位,再創歷史新高,使美國經濟在過去兩個月新增750萬個就業崗位

May and June rank as the two largest monthly jobs gains in history, with June’s numbers exceeding expectations once again. In June, nearly every major employment sector enjoyed a gain in jobs, with the leisure and hospitality industry seeing a gain of 2.1 million and retail trade increasing by 740,000. These gains likely reflect the reopening of State economies from May (based on the work week including May 12) through June (based on the work week including June 12).

5月和6月是歷史上就業人數增幅最大的兩個月,6月的數據再次超出預期。 6月,幾乎所有主要就業部門的崗位都有所增加,其中休閒和酒店業增加了210萬,零售業增加了74萬。這些增長可能反映了從5月(包括5月12日在內的工作週)到6月(包括6月12日在內的工作週)國家經濟的重新開放。

Millions of Americans have felt the costs of the economic shutdown due to COVID-19, and while the speed of this recovery has far exceeded expectations, jobs have still not recovered the ground lost since the economic shutdown began. From February to April, nearly 22.2 million total jobs were lost. Over the past two months, 7.5 million (33.8 percent) of those jobs have returned. Figure 1 shows that while the leisure and hospitality industry saw the largest gains over the past two months, the industry still has 4.8 million jobs to make up to reach its pre-COVID level.

數百萬計的美國人已經感受到了因新冠肺炎導致經濟關閉的代價,儘管經濟復甦的速度遠遠超過預期,但就業仍未恢復到經濟關閉前的水平。從2月到4月, 近2220萬個工作崗位丟失。在過去的兩個月,有750萬個工作崗位(33.8%)已經恢復。圖1顯示,休閒和酒店行業在過去兩個月裡取得了最大的增長,但該行業仍有480萬個工作崗位需要彌補,才能達到疫情爆發前的水平。

Additionally, the BLS June Employment Situation report estimates that the overall unemployment rate fell by a record 2.2 percentage points in June to 11.1 percent, and by 3.6 percentage points over the past two months.

此外,勞工統計局6月份就業情況報告評估,6月份整體失業率下降了2.2個百分點至11.1%,在過去兩個月中總共下降了3.6個百分點。

Even the 3.6 percentage point reduction in the official unemployment rate since April likely understates the actual progress made. As BLS Commissioner William Beach recently explained, the unique circumstances COVID-19 caused has led the household employment survey to misclassify some workers as “employed” who should have been classified as “unemployed” due to temporary business closures. As the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) has previously noted in our May 8th blog, addressing this issue could have resulted in an unemployment rate upward of 19 percent in April. When accounting for this misclassification, CEA finds that the unemployment rate of 19.6 percent in April has fallen to 12.3 percent as of June (see figure 2). This 7.2 percentage point reduction is twice as large as the 3.6 percentage point reduction in the official unemployment rate over the same period.

即便是4月份以來官方失業率下降3.6個百分點,可能也低估了實際進展。正如勞工統計局局長William Beach最近解釋道,COVID-19病毒的獨特性導致了在家庭就業調查中,將一些本因暫時停業而被歸為“失業”的工人錯誤地歸為“就業”。經濟顧問委員會(CEA)此前在我們5月8日的博客中也指出,解決這個問題可能會導致4月份失業率上升至19%。由於這個錯誤分類,經濟顧問委員會發現4月份的失業率從19.6%下降到6月份的12.3%(見圖2)。這7.2個百分點的降幅是同期官方失業率3.6個百分點降幅的兩倍。

來源:美國勞工統計局、經濟顧問委員會

注意:經濟顧問委員會修正失業率的計算方法是,首先將報告的因“其他原因”而未工作的就業人數與2016-2019年當月該指標的數值進行差值。然後我們將差額與報告的失業人數相加,再除以經季節性調整的勞動力。經濟顧問委員會修正後的失業率沒有經過季節調整。

The economic comeback has reduced unemployment across the board for several demographic groups. According to the BLS, the unemployment rate fell by 3.1 percentage points for Hispanic Americans and by 1.4 percentage points for Black Americans. In fact, Black Americans enjoyed the second largest employment gain on record, and female Black Americans over age 20 experienced the largest employment gain on record. Additionally, the female unemployment rate fell by 2.7 percentage points, which is larger than the decrease for men for the second straight month. As America’s businesses have reopened, teenagers saw a 6.7 percentage point unemployment rate reduction last month, consistent with the large job gains in the leisure and hospitality and retail trade industries.

經濟復甦降低了幾個人口群體的整體失業率。根據勞工統計局的數據,西班牙裔美國人的失業率下降了3.1個百分點,非裔美國人下降了1.4個百分點。事實上,非裔美國人的就業增長創歷史第二,20歲以上的非裔美國女性就業增長創歷史第一。此外,女性失業率下降了2.7個百分點,連續第二個月降幅超過男性失業率降幅 。隨著美國企業重新開業,上月美國青年失業率下降了6.7個百分點,這與休閒、酒店和零售貿易行業大幅增加的就業崗位相符。

While June’s jobs report is undoubtedly positive news for our Nation, millions of Americans continue to suffer due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An increasing number of long-term unemployed workers remain, low-wage earners still make up a smaller portion of the labor force, and more than one in every ten workers remains unemployed. The successes in the jobs report, however, should provide a source of optimism for all Americans as we look toward the future.

6月份的就業報告對我們無疑是個好消息,但仍有數百萬美國人因新冠肺炎大流行病而飽受折磨。長期失業的工人數量仍在增加,低收入者在勞動力中所佔的比例仍然較小,每十個工人中就有一個以上仍處於失業狀態。然而在我們展望未來的時候,就業報告中的成功應該為所有美國人提供樂觀的源泉。

For two consecutive months, we have experienced the largest job gains in history, and the resilience of the American people remains strong as we have recovered roughly one-third of the COVID-related job losses from March and April. As we look ahead, we should be mindful of the work that remains, so that the forgotten Americans are forgotten no more.


連續兩個月,我們經歷了歷史上最大的就業增長,從3月到4月,與新冠肺炎相關的失業人數已經恢復了大約三分之一,美國人民的恢復能力仍然很強。在我們展望未來的時候,我們應該注重餘下的任務,讓被遺忘的美國人不再被遺忘。

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翻譯:【littlepink】  校對:【文所未闻】

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