Executive Order on Modernizing and Reforming the Assessment and Hiring of Federal Job Candidates


issued on: June 26, 2020


By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and sections 1104(a)(1), 3301, and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

根據美利堅合眾國憲法和法律賦予我了總統權力, 包括《美國法典》第3篇第301節和《美國法典》第5篇第1104(a)(1)、3301和7301節賦予我的總統權力,命令如下:

Section 1.  Purpose.  The foundation of our professional merit-based civil service is the principle that employment and advancement rest on the ability of individuals to fulfill their responsibilities in service to the American public.  Accordingly, Federal Government employment opportunities should be filled based on merit.  Policies or practices that undermine public confidence in the hiring process undermine confidence in both the civil service and the Government.


America’s private employers have modernized their recruitment practices to better identify and secure talent through skills- and competency-based hiring.  As the modern workforce evolves, the Federal Government requires a more efficient approach to hiring.  Employers adopting skills- and competency-based hiring recognize that an overreliance on college degrees excludes capable candidates and undermines labor-market efficiencies.  Degree-based hiring is especially likely to exclude qualified candidates for jobs related to emerging technologies and those with weak connections between educational attainment and the skills or competencies required to perform them.  Moreover, unnecessary obstacles to opportunity disproportionately burden low-income Americans and decrease economic mobility.


The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) oversees most aspects of the civilian Federal workforce, including creating and maintaining the General Schedule classification system and determining the duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements for Federal jobs.  Executive departments and agencies (agencies), however, are responsible for vetting and selecting specific candidates to fill particular job openings consistent with statutory requirements and OPM rules and guidance, including applicable minimum educational requirements.  Currently, for most Federal jobs, traditional education — high school, college, or graduate-level — rather than experiential learning is either an absolute requirement or the only path to consideration for candidates without many years of experience.  As a result, Federal hiring practices currently lag behind those of private sector leaders in securing talent based on skills and competency.


My Administration is committed to modernizing and reforming civil service hiring through improved identification of skills requirements and effective assessments of the skills job seekers possess.  We encourage these same practices in the private sector.  Modernizing our country’s processes for identifying and hiring talent will provide America a more inclusive and demand-driven labor force.


Through the work of the National Council for the American Worker and the American Workforce Policy Advisory Board, my Administration is fulfilling its commitment to expand employment opportunities for workers.  The increased adoption of apprenticeship programs by American employers, the creation of Industry-Recognized Apprenticeship Programs, and the implementation of Federal hiring reforms, including those in this order, represent important steps toward providing more Americans with pathways to family-sustaining careers.  In addition, the Principles on Workforce Freedom and Mobility announced by my Administration in January 2020 detail reforms that will expand opportunities and eliminate unnecessary education costs for job seekers.  This order builds on the broader work of my Administration to expand opportunity and create a more inclusive 21st-century economy.

通過美國工人全國委員會和美國勞動力政策諮詢委員會的工作,我的政府正在履行其擴大工人就業機會的承諾。美國雇主越來越多地採用學徒計劃,建立行業認可的學徒計劃,以及實施聯邦僱用改革,包括本命令中的改革,這些都是為更多美國人提供維持家庭生計的途徑的重要步驟。此外,我的政府在2020年1月宣布的 “勞動力自由和流動原則 “詳細說明了將為求職者擴大機會和消除不必要的教育成本的改革。這項命令建立在我的政府為擴大機會和創造一個更具包容性的21世紀經濟所做的更廣泛工作的基礎上。

This order directs important, merit-based reforms that will replace degree-based hiring with skills- and competency-based hiring and will hold the civil service to a higher standard — ensuring that the individuals most capable of performing the roles and responsibilities required of a specific position are those hired for that position — that is more in line with the principles on which the merit system rests.


Sec. 2.  Revision of Job Classification and Qualification Standards.  (a)  The Director of OPM, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the heads of agencies, shall review and revise all job classification and qualification standards for positions within the competitive service, as necessary and consistent with subsections (a)(i) and (a)(ii) of this section.  All changes to job classification and qualification standards shall be made available to the public within 120 days of the date of this order and go into effect within 180 days of the date of this order.

第2條。職位分類和資格標準的修訂。 (a)OPM主任在與管理和預算辦公室主任、總統國內政策助理以及各機構負責人協商後,應根據需要並按照本節(a)(i)和(a)(ii)分節的規定,審查和修訂競爭性服務內所有職位的職務分類和資格標準。職務分類和資格標準的所有變動應在本命令發布之日起120天內向公眾公佈,並在本命令發布之日起180天內生效。

(i)   An agency may prescribe a minimum educational requirement for employment in the Federal competitive service only when a minimum educational qualification is legally required to perform the duties of the position in the State or locality where those duties are to be performed.


(ii)  Unless an agency is determining a candidate’s satisfaction of a legally required minimum educational requirement, an agency may consider education in determining a candidate’s satisfaction of some other minimum qualification only if the candidate’s education directly reflects the competencies necessary to satisfy that qualification and perform the duties of the position.

(ii) 除非一個機構正在確定候選人是否滿足法律規定的最低教育要求,否則,只有當候選人的教育直接反映了滿足該資格和履行該職位職責所需的能力時,一個機構才可以在確定候選人是否滿足其他最低資格時考慮教育。

(b)  Position descriptions and job postings published by agencies for positions within the competitive service should be based on the specific skills and competencies required to perform those jobs.


Sec. 3.  Improving the Use of Assessments in the Federal Hiring Process.  (a)  In addition to the other requirements of this order, the Director of OPM shall work with the heads of all agencies to ensure that, within 180 days of the date of this order, for positions within the competitive service, agencies assess candidates in a manner that does not rely solely on educational attainment to determine the extent to which candidates possess relevant knowledge, skills, competencies, and abilities.  The heads of all agencies shall develop or identify such assessment practices.

第3節. 改進聯邦招聘過程中對評估的使用。 (a)除本命令的其他要求外,OPM主任應與所有機構的負責人合作,確保在本命令發布之日起180天內,對於競爭性服務內的職位,各機構對候選人的評估方式不應僅僅依靠學歷來確定候選人擁有相關知識、技能、能力的程度。各機構負責人應制定或確定這種評估辦法。

(b)  In assessing candidates, agencies shall not rely solely on candidates’ self-evaluations of their stated abilities.  Applicants must clear other assessment hurdles in order to be certified for consideration.

(b) 在評估候選人時,各機構不應僅僅依靠候選人對其所述能力的自我評價。申請人必須通過其他評估障礙,才能獲得考慮認證。

(c)  Agencies shall continually evaluate the effectiveness of different assessment strategies to promote and protect the quality and integrity of their hiring processes.

(c) 各機構應不斷評價不同評估戰略的效力,以促進和保護其徵聘程序的質量和完整性。

Sec. 4.  Definitions.  For purposes of this order:

(a)  the term “assessment” refers to any valid and reliable method of collecting information on an individual for the purposes of making a decision about qualification, hiring, placement, promotion, referral, or entry into programs leading to advancement;


(a) “評估 “一詞指的是任何收集個人信息的有效和可靠的方法,目的是就資格、僱用、安置、晉升、推薦或進入導致晉升的方案作出決定。

(b)  the term “competitive service” has the meaning specified by section 2102 of title 5, United States Code;

(b) “競爭性服務 “一詞具有《美國法典》第5章第2102條所規定的含義。

(c)  the term “education” refers to Post High-School Education as that term is defined in the OPM General Schedule Qualification Policies; and

c) “教育 “一詞是指高中後教育,因為這個詞已經在《總理辦公廳資格政策總表》中被定義;

(d)  the term “qualification” means the minimum requirements necessary to perform work of a particular position or occupation successfully and safely.

(d) “資格 “一詞是指成功和安全地從事某一特定職位或職業的工作所需的最低要求。

Sec. 5.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第5條。一般規定。 (a) 本命令中的任何內容均不得解釋為損害或以其他方式影響:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(i) 法律授予行政部門或機構或其負責人的權力;或

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(ii) 管理和預算辦公室主任與預算、行政或立法提案有關的職能。

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本命令的執行應符合適用的法律,並以撥款為限。

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本命令無意也不會產生任何一方可在法律上或衡平法上對美國、其各部門、機構或實體、其官員、僱員或代理人或任何其他人強制執行的任何實質性或程序性權利或利益。





June 26, 2020.




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“but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint” 【Isaiah 40:31】 6月 27日, 2020