Executive Order on Modernizing and Reforming the Assessment and Hiring of Federal Job Candidates


issued on: June 26, 2020


By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and sections 1104(a)(1), 3301, and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

根据美利坚合众国宪法和法律赋予我了总统权力, 包括《美国法典》第3篇第301节和《美国法典》第5篇第1104(a)(1)、3301和7301节赋予我的总统权力,命令如下:

Section 1.  Purpose.  The foundation of our professional merit-based civil service is the principle that employment and advancement rest on the ability of individuals to fulfill their responsibilities in service to the American public.  Accordingly, Federal Government employment opportunities should be filled based on merit.  Policies or practices that undermine public confidence in the hiring process undermine confidence in both the civil service and the Government.

第一节:目的。 我们的专业任人唯贤的公务员制度的基础是这样的原则:就业和晋升取决于个人履行其为美国公众服务的责任的能力。 因此,联邦政府的就业机会应根据功绩来填补。 损害公众对招聘过程的信心的政策或做法,会损害对公务员制度和政府的信心。

America’s private employers have modernized their recruitment practices to better identify and secure talent through skills- and competency-based hiring.  As the modern workforce evolves, the Federal Government requires a more efficient approach to hiring.  Employers adopting skills- and competency-based hiring recognize that an overreliance on college degrees excludes capable candidates and undermines labor-market efficiencies.  Degree-based hiring is especially likely to exclude qualified candidates for jobs related to emerging technologies and those with weak connections between educational attainment and the skills or competencies required to perform them.  Moreover, unnecessary obstacles to opportunity disproportionately burden low-income Americans and decrease economic mobility.

美国的私营雇主已经实现了招聘做法的现代化,通过基于技能和能力的招聘来更好地发现和确保人才。 随着现代劳动力的发展,联邦政府需要一种更有效的招聘方法。 采用以技能和能力为基础的招聘方式的雇主们认识到,过度依赖大学学位会将有能力的候选人排除在外,损害劳动力市场的效率。 以学位为基础的招聘特别有可能排除与新兴技术相关的工作的合格候选人,以及那些教育程度与从事这些工作所需的技能或能力之间联系薄弱的候选人。 此外,不必要的机会障碍给低收入的美国人造成了过重的负担,降低了经济流动性。

The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) oversees most aspects of the civilian Federal workforce, including creating and maintaining the General Schedule classification system and determining the duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements for Federal jobs.  Executive departments and agencies (agencies), however, are responsible for vetting and selecting specific candidates to fill particular job openings consistent with statutory requirements and OPM rules and guidance, including applicable minimum educational requirements.  Currently, for most Federal jobs, traditional education — high school, college, or graduate-level — rather than experiential learning is either an absolute requirement or the only path to consideration for candidates without many years of experience.  As a result, Federal hiring practices currently lag behind those of private sector leaders in securing talent based on skills and competency.

人事管理办公室(OPM)负责监督联邦文职人员队伍的大部分方面,包括建立和维持总分类制度,并确定联邦职位的职责、责任和资格要求。执行部门和机构(机关)负责根据法定要求和OPM的规则和指南,包括适用的最低学历要求,审核和选拔特定的候选人来填补特定的职位空缺。 目前,对于大多数联邦工作而言,传统教育—-高中、大学或研究生水平—-而不是经验学习,对于没有多年经验的求职者来说,要么是绝对的要求,要么是唯一的考虑途径。 因此,在根据技能和能力吸引人才方面,联邦的招聘做法目前落后于私营部门的领导者。

My Administration is committed to modernizing and reforming civil service hiring through improved identification of skills requirements and effective assessments of the skills job seekers possess.  We encourage these same practices in the private sector.  Modernizing our country’s processes for identifying and hiring talent will provide America a more inclusive and demand-driven labor force.

我的政府致力于通过更好地确定技能要求和有效评估求职者所具备的技能,使公务员的招聘工作现代化和改革。 我们鼓励私营部门采取同样的做法。 使我国识别和雇用人才的程序现代化,将为美国提供一支更具包容性和需求驱动的劳动力队伍。

Through the work of the National Council for the American Worker and the American Workforce Policy Advisory Board, my Administration is fulfilling its commitment to expand employment opportunities for workers.  The increased adoption of apprenticeship programs by American employers, the creation of Industry-Recognized Apprenticeship Programs, and the implementation of Federal hiring reforms, including those in this order, represent important steps toward providing more Americans with pathways to family-sustaining careers.  In addition, the Principles on Workforce Freedom and Mobility announced by my Administration in January 2020 detail reforms that will expand opportunities and eliminate unnecessary education costs for job seekers.  This order builds on the broader work of my Administration to expand opportunity and create a more inclusive 21st-century economy.

通过美国工人全国委员会和美国劳动力政策咨询委员会的工作,我的政府正在履行其扩大工人就业机会的承诺。 美国雇主越来越多地采用学徒计划,建立行业认可的学徒计划,以及实施联邦雇用改革,包括本命令中的改革,这些都是为更多美国人提供维持家庭生计的途径的重要步骤。 此外,我的政府在2020年1月宣布的 “劳动力自由和流动原则 “详细说明了将为求职者扩大机会和消除不必要的教育成本的改革。 这项命令建立在我的政府为扩大机会和创造一个更具包容性的21世纪经济所做的更广泛工作的基础上。

This order directs important, merit-based reforms that will replace degree-based hiring with skills- and competency-based hiring and will hold the civil service to a higher standard — ensuring that the individuals most capable of performing the roles and responsibilities required of a specific position are those hired for that position — that is more in line with the principles on which the merit system rests.


Sec. 2.  Revision of Job Classification and Qualification Standards.  (a)  The Director of OPM, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the heads of agencies, shall review and revise all job classification and qualification standards for positions within the competitive service, as necessary and consistent with subsections (a)(i) and (a)(ii) of this section.  All changes to job classification and qualification standards shall be made available to the public within 120 days of the date of this order and go into effect within 180 days of the date of this order.

第2条。 职位分类和资格标准的修订。 (a)OPM主任在与管理和预算办公室主任、总统国内政策助理以及各机构负责人协商后,应根据需要并按照本节(a)(i)和(a)(ii)分节的规定,审查和修订竞争性服务内所有职位的职务分类和资格标准。 职务分类和资格标准的所有变动应在本命令发布之日起120天内向公众公布,并在本命令发布之日起180天内生效。

(i)   An agency may prescribe a minimum educational requirement for employment in the Federal competitive service only when a minimum educational qualification is legally required to perform the duties of the position in the State or locality where those duties are to be performed.


(ii)  Unless an agency is determining a candidate’s satisfaction of a legally required minimum educational requirement, an agency may consider education in determining a candidate’s satisfaction of some other minimum qualification only if the candidate’s education directly reflects the competencies necessary to satisfy that qualification and perform the duties of the position.

(ii) 除非一个机构正在确定候选人是否满足法律规定的最低教育要求,否则,只有当候选人的教育直接反映了满足该资格和履行该职位职责所需的能力时,一个机构才可以在确定候选人是否满足其他最低资格时考虑教育。

(b)  Position descriptions and job postings published by agencies for positions within the competitive service should be based on the specific skills and competencies required to perform those jobs.


Sec. 3.  Improving the Use of Assessments in the Federal Hiring Process.  (a)  In addition to the other requirements of this order, the Director of OPM shall work with the heads of all agencies to ensure that, within 180 days of the date of this order, for positions within the competitive service, agencies assess candidates in a manner that does not rely solely on educational attainment to determine the extent to which candidates possess relevant knowledge, skills, competencies, and abilities.  The heads of all agencies shall develop or identify such assessment practices.

第3节.  改进联邦招聘过程中对评估的使用。 (a)除本命令的其他要求外,OPM主任应与所有机构的负责人合作,确保在本命令发布之日起180天内,对于竞争性服务内的职位,各机构对候选人的评估方式不应仅仅依靠学历来确定候选人拥有相关知识、技能、能力的程度。 各机构负责人应制定或确定这种评估办法。

(b)  In assessing candidates, agencies shall not rely solely on candidates’ self-evaluations of their stated abilities.  Applicants must clear other assessment hurdles in order to be certified for consideration.

(b) 在评估候选人时,各机构不应仅仅依靠候选人对其所述能力的自我评价。 申请人必须通过其他评估障碍,才能获得考虑认证。

(c)  Agencies shall continually evaluate the effectiveness of different assessment strategies to promote and protect the quality and integrity of their hiring processes.

(c) 各机构应不断评价不同评估战略的效力,以促进和保护其征聘程序的质量和完整性。

Sec. 4.  Definitions.  For purposes of this order:

(a)  the term “assessment” refers to any valid and reliable method of collecting information on an individual for the purposes of making a decision about qualification, hiring, placement, promotion, referral, or entry into programs leading to advancement;

第4节。 定义。 为本命令的目的:

(a) “评估 “一词指的是任何收集个人信息的有效和可靠的方法,目的是就资格、雇用、安置、晋升、推荐或进入导致晋升的方案作出决定。

(b)  the term “competitive service” has the meaning specified by section 2102 of title 5, United States Code;

(b) “竞争性服务 “一词具有《美国法典》第5章第2102条所规定的含义。

(c)  the term “education” refers to Post High-School Education as that term is defined in the OPM General Schedule Qualification Policies; and

(c) “教育 “一词是指高中后教育,因为这个词已经在《总理办公厅资格政策总表》中被定义;

(d)  the term “qualification” means the minimum requirements necessary to perform work of a particular position or occupation successfully and safely.

(d) “资格 “一词是指成功和安全地从事某一特定职位或职业的工作所需的最低要求。

Sec. 5.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第5条。 一般规定。 (a) 本命令中的任何内容均不得解释为损害或以其他方式影响:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(i) 法律授予行政部门或机构或其负责人的权力;或

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(ii) 管理和预算办公室主任与预算、行政或立法提案有关的职能。

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本命令的执行应符合适用的法律,并以拨款为限。

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本命令无意也不会产生任何一方可在法律上或衡平法上对美国、其各部门、机构或实体、其官员、雇员或代理人或任何其他人强制执行的任何实质性或程序性权利或利益。





June 26, 2020.




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“but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint” 【Isaiah 40:31】 6月 27日, 2020